Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world which is highly vulnerable to Natural Disasters because of its Geographical location, Flat and low-lying landscape, Population density, Poverty, Illiteracy, Lack of Institutional setup etc. In other words, the Physical, Social as well as Economic conditions of Bangladesh are very typical to any of the most vulnerable countries to Natural Disasters in the world. Moreover, the adverse effects of Climate Change especially High Temperature, Sea-level Rise, Cyclones and Storm Surges, Salinity Intrusion, Heavy Monsoon Downpours etc. have aggravated the overall Economic Development scenario of the country to a great extent.
Impacts of Climate Change on energy sector:
Climate change impacts in energy production linked to fuels, energy infrastructures and energy use. Current, policies and impact assessment comprise in CO2 emission reduction energy through using efficient technological advancement and fuel switch. In production and use of energy, climate change impacts – i) consumption of energy, ii) production and supply of energy and energy services, and iii) indirectly by shaping supply/production and consumption pattern of energy. Rising temperatures will increase demand of summer to post-monsoon and spring season power intake for cooling, heating, irrigation etc. purposes. This may be additional burden on scarce supply of electricity as well as affect energy costs and their demands on energy supply institutions. Impacts can be significant on production and supply: (a) if extreme weather events become more intense, (b) where regions dependent on water supplies power plant cooling to face reductions in water supplies, (c) temperature increases may change overall power generation efficiencies, and (d) changed conditions affect facility setting decisions. Most effects are likely to be severe for possible regional effects of extreme weather events and water shortages.
In Energy Sector:
The government has highlighted mitigation of climate change by reducing reliance on fossil fuels and encouraging the removal of GHGs from the atmosphere as one of the pillars of Bangladesh Climate Change and Strategy Action Plan 2009 (BCCSAP’09). Transition to low-carbon economy has been set as goal that also matches with the Vision 2020 Power perspective Plan to increase use of renewable resources. From trust fund , a notable number of projects were also taken in the energy sector; such as 17145 solar home system as an alternate source of energy, 52,8000 improved cook stove and 12813 number of bio-gas plant also installed at different area of Bangladesh to address the climate change issues in energy sector. In response to global call as agreed in Warsaw COP19 in 2013 and Lima COP20 in 2014, Bangladesh developed its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). NDC builds on existing strategies and programmes e.g. BCCSAP, Power Sector Master Plan, National Sustainable Development Strategy, and forthcoming NAP. Under this initiative, three sectorial mitigation action plans (power, transport, industry) will be addressed.